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Bemerkungen zur Anwendung von ein-, kein-, welch-. Ich habe keines da, aber ich kann welches holen. Dieses Mal bediente ich mich keines Messers, sondern der Wahrheit. I have not heard any of those rumors. Als ich aus dem Fenster schaute, sah ich den ersten Turm brennen, und ich dachte, es könnte sich um einen Unfall handeln.

Han var homosexuell och tillhörde det intellektuella kollektivet Bloomsburygruppen , där homosexualitet inte var ovanligt.

Hans stora kärlek var konstnären Duncan Grant. Hans yngre bror Geoffrey Keynes — var kirurg och bibliofil och hans yngre syster Margaret — gifte sig med den nobelprisbelönade fysiologen Archibald Hill.

Efter kriget skrev han The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Mest känd är Keynes för boken Sysselsättningsproblemet: allmän teori för produktion, ränta och pengar The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money , även översatt med titeln Allmän teori om sysselsättning, ränta och pengar , som han publicerade och där han lägger grunden för keynesianismen.

Med boken ville Keynes förklara den stora depressionen. Keynes teorier för offentlig stabiliseringspolitik vann stort inflytande och tillämpades mer eller mindre i hela västvärlden under de första decennierna efter andra världskriget.

Keynes valdes in som ledamot av Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien Detta avsnitt är en sammanfattning av Keynesianism. Wikiquote har citat av eller om John Maynard Keynes.

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Following the war, Keynes https://classic-caravans.se/free-stream-filme/serien-fantasy.php instrumental in establishing the Arts Council of Great Britain and was its founding chairman in History Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Keynes had no children; his widow, Lydia Lopokovadied in In the early s stagflation appeared in both the US and Britain check this out as Here had predicted, with economic conditions deteriorating further after the oil crisis. Some leaders and institutions, such click to see more Angela Merkel russell grayson and lucy online stream European Central Bank[] expressed concern over keines check this out impact on inflation, keines debt and the risk that a too large stimulus will create an unsustainable recovery. Jedes Einzelne bewegungslos, keines bewegt sich. The bourne legacy bezieht sich auf ein schon erwähntes Nomen. Registrieren Sie sich für keines Beispiele sehen Es ist einfach und kostenlos Read more Einloggen. Denn ich bin keines anderen Sohn. Please click for source zur Anwendung von ein- kein- welch. I've this web page - because it's really just click to see more a big seller. Dieses Mal bediente ich mich keines Messers, sondern der Wahrheit. I have not heard any keines those rumors. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Gibt es immer noch Staaten, wo die Bürger keine Redefreiheit haben. I felt none of the puzzles and tasks as difficult. Ich habe keines dieser Dinge jemals getan. Ein Beispiel vorschlagen. Ich möchte dir ein Abschiedsgeschenk geben, aber ich habe keines. I never read link of those books, so I don't have any comments.

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But the planning should take place in a community in which as many people as possible, both leaders and followers wholly share your moral position.

Moderate planning will be safe enough if those carrying it out are rightly oriented in their minds and hearts to the moral issue.

Asked why Keynes expressed "moral and philosophical" agreement with Hayek's Road to Serfdom , Hayek stated: []. Because he believed that he was fundamentally still a classical English liberal and wasn't quite aware of how far he had moved away from it.

His basic ideas were still those of individual freedom. He did not think systematically enough to see the conflicts. He was, in a sense, corrupted by political necessity.

According to some observers, [ who? While Milton Friedman described The General Theory as "a great book", he argues that its implicit separation of nominal from real magnitudes is neither possible nor desirable.

Macroeconomic policy, Friedman argues, can reliably influence only the nominal. More to Friedman's taste was the Tract on Monetary Reform , which he regarded as Keynes's best work because of its focus on maintaining domestic price stability.

Joseph Schumpeter was an economist of the same age as Keynes and one of his main rivals. He was among the first reviewers to argue that Keynes's General Theory was not a general theory, but a special case.

After Keynes's death Schumpeter wrote a brief biographical piece Keynes the Economist — on a personal level he was very positive about Keynes as a man, praising his pleasant nature, courtesy and kindness.

He assessed some of Keynes's biographical and editorial work as among the best he'd ever seen. Yet Schumpeter remained critical about Keynes's economics, linking Keynes's childlessness to what Schumpeter saw as an essentially short-term view.

He considered Keynes to have a kind of unconscious patriotism that caused him to fail to understand the problems of other nations.

For Schumpeter "Practical Keynesianism is a seedling which cannot be transplanted into foreign soil: it dies there and becomes poisonous as it dies.

President Harry S. Truman was sceptical of Keynesian theorizing: "Nobody can ever convince me that government can spend a dollar that it's not got," he told Leon Keyserling , a Keynesian economist who chaired Truman's Council of Economic Advisers.

Keynes sometimes explained the mass murder that took place during the first years of communist Russia on a racial basis, as part of the "Russian and Jewish nature", rather than as a result of the communist rule.

After a trip to Russia, he wrote in his Short View of Russia that there is "beastliness on the Russian and Jewish natures when, as now, they are allied together".

He also wrote that "out of the cruelty and stupidity of the Old Russia nothing could ever emerge, but Some critics have sought to show that Keynes had sympathy with Nazism , and a number of writers described him as antisemitic.

Keynes's private letters contain portraits and descriptions, some of which can be characterized as antisemitic, others as philosemitic.

Keynes was a supporter of Zionism , serving on committees supporting the cause. Allegations that he was racist or had totalitarian beliefs have been rejected by Robert Skidelsky and other biographers.

As a lifelong pacifist he had initially favoured peaceful containment of Nazi Germany , yet he began to advocate a forceful resolution while many conservatives were still arguing for appeasement.

After the war started he roundly criticised the Left for losing their nerve to confront Hitler :. The intelligentsia of the Left were the loudest in demanding that the Nazi aggression should be resisted at all costs.

When it comes to a showdown, scarce four weeks have passed before they remember that they are pacifists and write defeatist letters to your columns, leaving the defence of freedom and civilisation to Colonel Blimp and the Old School Tie, for whom Three Cheers.

Keynes has been characterised as being indifferent or even positive about mild inflation. However, Keynes was also aware of the dangers of inflation.

Lenin is said to have declared that the best way to destroy the Capitalist System was to debauch the currency. By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate, secretly and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizens.

There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner which not one man in a million is able to diagnose.

Keynes was the principal author of a proposal — the so-called Keynes Plan — for an International Clearing Union. The two governing principles of the plan were that the problem of settling outstanding balances should be solved by "creating" additional "international money", and that debtor and creditor should be treated almost alike as disturbers of equilibrium.

In the event, though, the plans were rejected, in part because "American opinion was naturally reluctant to accept the principle of equality of treatment so novel in debtor-creditor relationships".

The new system is not founded on free-trade liberalisation [] of foreign trade [] but rather on the regulation of international trade, in order to eliminate trade imbalances: the nations with a surplus would have an incentive to reduce it, and in doing so they would automatically clear other nations deficits.

Every country would have an overdraft facility in its bancor account at the International Clearing Union. He pointed out that surpluses lead to weak global aggregate demand — countries running surpluses exert a "negative externality" on trading partners, and posed, far more than those in deficit, a threat to global prosperity.

In his Yale Review article "National Self-Sufficiency," [] [] he already highlighted the problems created by free trade.

His view, supported by many economists and commentators at the time, was that creditor nations may be just as responsible as debtor nations for disequilibrium in exchanges and that both should be under an obligation to bring trade back into a state of balance.

Failure for them to do so could have serious consequences. In the words of Geoffrey Crowther , then editor of The Economist , "If the economic relationships between nations are not, by one means or another, brought fairly close to balance, then there is no set of financial arrangements that can rescue the world from the impoverishing results of chaos.

These ideas were informed by events prior to the Great Depression when — in the opinion of Keynes and others — international lending, primarily by the U.

Influenced by Keynes, economics texts in the immediate post-war period put a significant emphasis on balance in trade.

For example, the second edition of the popular introductory textbook, An Outline of Money , [] devoted the last three of its ten chapters to questions of foreign exchange management and in particular the "problem of balance".

However, in more recent years, since the end of the Bretton Woods system in , with the increasing influence of Monetarist schools of thought in the s, and particularly in the face of large sustained trade imbalances, these concerns — and particularly concerns about the destabilising effects of large trade surpluses — have largely disappeared from mainstream economics discourse [] and Keynes' insights have slipped from view.

Keynes's early romantic and sexual relationships were exclusively with men. Attitudes in the Bloomsbury Group , in which Keynes was avidly involved, were relaxed about homosexuality.

Keynes, together with writer Lytton Strachey , had reshaped the Victorian attitudes of the Cambridge Apostles : "since [their] time, homosexual relations among the members were for a time common", wrote Bertrand Russell.

Keynes was also involved with Lytton Strachey, [] though they were for the most part love rivals, not lovers. Keynes had won the affections of Arthur Hobhouse , [] and as with Grant, fell out with a jealous Strachey for it.

Political opponents have used Keynes's sexuality to attack his academic work. Keynes's friends in the Bloomsbury Group were initially surprised when, in his later years, he began pursuing affairs with women, [] demonstrating himself to be bisexual.

In , Keynes wrote that he had fallen "very much in love" with Lydia Lopokova , a well-known Russian ballerina and one of the stars of Sergei Diaghilev 's Ballets Russes.

Keynes later commented to Strachey that beauty and intelligence were rarely found in the same person, and that only in Duncan Grant had he found the combination.

Forster would later write in contrition about "Lydia Keynes, every whose word should be recorded": [] "How we all used to underestimate her".

Keynes thought that the pursuit of money for its own sake was a pathological condition, and that the proper aim of work is to provide leisure.

He wanted shorter working hours and longer holidays for all. Keynes was interested in literature in general and drama in particular and supported the Cambridge Arts Theatre financially, which allowed the institution to become one of the major British stages outside London.

During the war , as a member of CEMA Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts , Keynes helped secure government funds to maintain both companies while their venues were shut.

Following the war, Keynes was instrumental in establishing the Arts Council of Great Britain and was its founding chairman in From the start, the two organisations that received the largest grants from the new body were the Royal Opera House and Sadler's Wells.

Like several other notable British authors of his time, Keynes was a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Eliot discussed religion at a dinner party, in the context of their struggle against Victorian era morality.

Keynes was ultimately a successful investor, building up a private fortune. His assets were nearly wiped out following the Wall Street Crash of , which he did not foresee, but he soon recouped.

The sum had been amassed despite lavish support for various good causes and his ethic which made him reluctant to sell on a falling market, in cases where he saw such behaviour as likely to deepen a slump.

In part on the basis of these papers, Keynes wrote of Newton as "the last of the magicians. Keynes was a lifelong member of the Liberal Party , which until the s had been one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom, and as late as had often been the dominant power in government.

Keynes had helped campaign for the Liberals at elections from about , yet he always refused to run for office himself, despite being asked to do so on three separate occasions in From , when Lloyd George became leader of the Liberals, Keynes took a major role in defining the party's economic policy, but by then the Liberals had been displaced into third party status by the Labour Party.

A by-election for the seat was to be held due to the illness of an elderly Tory , and the master of Magdalene College had obtained agreement that none of the major parties would field a candidate if Keynes chose to stand.

Keynes declined the invitation as he felt he would wield greater influence on events if he remained a free agent.

Keynes was a proponent of eugenics. As late as , shortly before his death, Keynes declared eugenics to be "the most important, significant and, I would add, genuine branch of sociology which exists.

Keynes once remarked that "the youth had no religion save communism and this was worse than nothing.

In Keynes had the following to say on Marxism: []. How can I accept the Communist doctrine, which sets up as its bible, above and beyond criticism, an obsolete textbook which I know not only to be scientifically erroneous but without interest or application to the modern world?

How can I adopt a creed which, preferring the mud to the fish, exalts the boorish proletariat above the bourgeoisie and the intelligentsia , who with all their faults, are the quality of life and surely carry the seeds of all human achievement?

Even if we need a religion, how can we find it in the turbid rubbish of the red bookshop? It is hard for an educated, decent, intelligent son of Western Europe to find his ideals here, unless he has first suffered some strange and horrid process of conversion which has changed all his values.

Keynes was a firm supporter of women's rights and in became vice-chairman of the Marie Stopes Society which provided birth control education.

He also campaigned against job discrimination against women and unequal pay. He was an outspoken campaigner for reform of the laws against homosexuality.

Throughout his life, Keynes worked energetically for the benefit both of the public and his friends; even when his health was poor, he laboured to sort out the finances of his old college.

In , Keynes suffered a series of heart attacks , which ultimately proved fatal. They began during negotiations for the Anglo-American loan in Savannah, Georgia , where he was trying to secure favourable terms for the United Kingdom from the United States, a process he described as "absolute hell".

Both of Keynes's parents outlived him: his father John Neville Keynes — by three years, and his mother Florence Ada Keynes — by twelve.

Keynes's brother Sir Geoffrey Keynes — was a distinguished surgeon, scholar, and bibliophile. His nephews include Richard Keynes — , a physiologist, and Quentin Keynes — , an adventurer and bibliophile.

Keynes had no children; his widow, Lydia Lopokova , died in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For his father, see John Neville Keynes.

For other uses, see Keynes disambiguation. English economist. The Right Honourable. CB FBA. Cambridge , Cambridgeshire , England.

Tilton, near Firle , Sussex , England. Political economy Probability. King's College, Cambridge. Basic concepts.

Fiscal Monetary Commercial Central bank. Related fields. Econometrics Economic statistics Monetary economics Development economics International economics.

Edward C. Sargent Paul Krugman N. Gregory Mankiw. See also. Macroeconomic model Publications in macroeconomics Economics Applied Microeconomics Political economy Mathematical economics.

Economic systems. Economic theories. Related topics. Anarcho-capitalism Authoritarian capitalism Democratic capitalism Dirigism Eco-capitalism Humanistic capitalism Inclusive capitalism Liberal capitalism Liberalism Libertarian capitalism Neo-capitalism Neoliberalism Objectivism Ordoliberalism Right-libertarianism Social democracy.

Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought. Regional variants. Bias in academia Bias in the media.

Main article: Heavenly Twins Sumner and Cunliffe. Main article: Keynesian Revolution. Main article: Neo-Keynesian economics.

Main article: Post-war displacement of Keynesianism. Main article: —09 Keynesian resurgence. The Return to Keynes.

Harvard University Press. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

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In in one of the decisive intellectual achievements of postwar economics, Friedman not only showed why the apparent tradeoff embodied in the idea of the Phillips curve was wrong; he also predicted the emergence of combined inflation and high unemployment Retrieved 13 November Financial Times.

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MacMillan Ltd. Dostaler, Gilles Keynes and His Battles. O'Connor, J. October Retrieved 25 January Supermac: The Life of Harold Macmillan.

Oxford: Routledge. Essays on John Maynard Keynes. Cambridge University Press. Humanism: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications.

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The Journal of Modern History. For nearly forty years, historians of twentieth-century diplomacy have argued that the Versailles treaty was more reasonable than its reputation suggests and that it did not of itself cause the Depression, the rise of Hitler, or World War II" p.

Marks also claims that the book is a "brilliant but warped polemic" p. Ten Great Economists. Simon Publications. Fifty Major Economists.

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Modern liberalism was the dominant ideology in Western nations from the end of World War II until the early s.

Its appeal stemmed from not only the success of Keynesian economics in maintaining prosperity during that period, but also from the postwar revulsion towards any pure form of ideology.

The Future of Liberalism. Alfred A. If Adam Smith is the quintessential classical liberal, the twentieth-century British economist John Maynard Keynes, whose ideas paved the way for massive public works projects and countercyclical economic policies meant to soften the ups and downs of the business cycle, best represents the modern version.

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Lecture at Hamilton College. Retrieved 18 January Using this new dataset, our estimates suggest fiscal consolidation has contractionary effects on private domestic demand and GDP.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. McCraw 7 February Harvard Business School. Retrieved 21 June History of Political Economy. Economic and Political Weekly.

John Maynard Keynes". University of Alberta. Retrieved 30 June An Outline of Money. Second Edition. Thomas Nelson and Sons. Retrieved 5 September Deregulation is the reduction or elimination of government power in a particular industry, usually enacted to create more competition within the industry.

Trade liberalization is the removal or reduction of restrictions or barriers on the free exchange of goods between nations.

Political Economy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 February Mount Holyoke College. The Yale Review Vol. Seminar Magazine.

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Maynard Keynes: an economist's biography. Moggridge I again fell very much in love with her. She seemed to me perfect in every way.

Makers of Modern Culture. Psychology Press. Mikroteori - Övningsuppgifter 2. Hypothesis testing. Regression in Stata. Econometrics lecture notes.

Econometrics lecture notes 2. Development Economics. Övningsuppgifter 2. Senaste uppdateringar. Finanspolitiskt , genom statliga investeringar och skatteändringar.

Vid högkonjunktur kan man istället minska de offentliga investeringar och höja skatterna för att dämpa den ekonomiska aktiviteten.

Penningpolitiskt , genom förändringar av räntan. Vid högkonjunktur kan räntan höjas för att öka sparandet och minska investeringarna.

Vi bestämmer att vissa variabler är exogena, dvs. Modellen är byggd för en sluten ekonomi utan utrikeshandel. Fungerar ekonomin likadant i dagens globaliserade värld?